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A Raisin in the Sun is a play by Lorraine Hansberry that debuted on Broadway in 1959.[1] The title comes from the poem "Harlem" (also known as "A Dream Deferred") by Langston Hughes. The story is based upon a black family's experiences in the Washington Park Subdivision of Chicago's Woodlawn neighborhood.


Plot

A Raisin in the Sun portrays a few weeks in the life of the Youngers, an African-American family living in Chicago's Southside sometime between World War II and the 1950s. When the play opens, the Youngers are about to receive an insurance check for $10,000. This money comes from the deceased Mr. Younger’s life insurance policy. Each of the adult members of the family has an idea as to what he or she would like to do with this money. The matriarch of the family, Mama, wants to buy a house to fulfill a dream she shared with her husband. Mama’s son, Walter Lee, would rather use the money to invest in a liquor store with his friends. He believes that the investment will solve the family’s financial problems forever. Walter’s wife, Ruth, agrees with Mama, however, and hopes that she and Walter can provide more space and opportunity for their son, Travis. Beneatha, Walter’s sister and Mama’s daughter, wants her mother to use the money for whatever be her will. Mama does mention she'd also like to use the money for Beneatha's medical school tuition. She also wishes that her family members were not so interested in joining the white world. Beneatha instead tries to find her identity by looking back to the past and to Africa.

As the play proceeds, the Youngers clash over their competing dreams. Ruth discovers that she is pregnant but fears that if she has the child, she will put more financial pressure on her family members. When Walter says nothing to Ruth’s admission that she is considering abortion, Mama puts a down payment on a house for the whole family. She believes that a bigger, brighter dwelling will help them all. This house is in Clybourne Park, an entirely white neighborhood. When the Youngers’ future neighbors find out that the Youngers are moving in, they send Mr. Lindner, from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, to offer the Youngers money in return for staying away. The Youngers refuse the deal, even after Walter loses the rest of the money ($6,500) to his friend Willy Harris, who persuades Walter to invest in the liquor store and then runs off with his cash.

In the meantime, Beneatha rejects her suitor, George Murchison, whom she believes to be shallow and blind to the problems of race. Subsequently, she receives a marriage proposal from her Nigerian boyfriend, Joseph Asagai, who wants Beneatha to get a medical degree and move to Africa with him (Beneatha does not make her choice before the end of the play). The Youngers eventually move out of the apartment, fulfilling the family’s long-held dream. Their future seems uncertain and slightly dangerous, but they are optimistic and determined to live a better life. They believe that they can succeed if they stick together as a family and resolve to defer their dreams no longer.

Litigation

All experiences in this play echo a lawsuit (Hansberry v. Lee, 311 U.S. 32 (1940)), to which the Hansberry family was a party when they fought to have their day in court because a previous class action about racially motivated restrictive covenants (Burke v. Kleiman, 277 Ill. App. 519 (1934) was similar to the case at hand. They won their right to be heard as a matter of due process of law in relation to the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court held that the Hansberry defendants were not bound by the Burke decision because the class of defendants in the respective cases had conflicting goals, and thus could not be considered to be the same class.

Interestingly, the plaintiff in the first action was Olive Ida Burke, who brought the suit on behalf of the property owner's association to enforce the racial restriction in 1934. Her husband, James Burke, was the person who sold the property to Carl Hansberry (Lorraine's father) when he changed his mind about the validity of the covenant. Mr. Burke's decision may have been motivated by the changing demographics of the neighborhood, but it was also influenced by the Depression. The demand for houses was so low among white buyers that Mr. Hansberry may have been the only prospective purchaser available.[2]

Lorraine reflects upon the litigation in her book To Be Young, Gifted, and Black:

"25 years ago, [my father] spent a small personal fortune, his considerable talents, and many years of his life fighting, in association with NAACP attorneys, Chicago’s ‘restrictive covenants’ in one of this nation's ugliest ghettos. That fight also required our family to occupy disputed property in a hellishly hostile ‘white neighborhood’ in which literally howling mobs surrounded our house… My memories of this ‘correct’ way of fighting white supremacy in America include being spat at, cursed and pummeled in the daily trek to and from school. And I also remember my desperate and courageous mother, patrolling our household all night with a loaded German Luger (pistol), doggedly guarding her four children, while my father fought the respectable part of the battle in the Washington court."

The Hansberry house, the red brick three-flat at 6140 S. Rhodes in Washington Park which they bought in 1937, is up for landmark status before the Chicago City Council's Committee on Historical Landmarks Preservation.[3]

 

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در چهارشنبه چهاردهم اردیبهشت 1390 و ساعت 14:14 |

Major Characters

Ruth Younger: Ruth is Walter Lee's wife, a deeply emotional and old fashioned woman. Despite her true love for family and her husband, she has difficulty dealing with Walter's mistreatment of her. Ruth is pregnant and goes to a female gynecologist to put a down payment on having her unborn child aborted. Ruth is the family member most excited to move into a new home because she wants her son Travis to have a better life.

Travis Younger: Travis is Ruth and Walter Lee's only child and sleeps on the couch in the living room. He loves his grandmama deeply and buys her a large gardening hat as a moving gift. Although he often plays one parent against the other unknowingly, he has a close relationship with both Ruth and Walter.

Walter Lee Younger: Walter Lee is Lena's oldest child and only son. He is married to Ruth and works as a chauffeur for wealthy white people. He constantly feels as though the entire world is against him, especially the women in his life: his mother and his wife. He seems to care only for money and wants the insurance money to start a liquor store with Bobo and Willy Harris. Although Walter is obsessed with money and seems to ignore his family, he matures at the conclusion of the play, as he tells Lindner that his family cannot be bought.

Beneatha Younger: Beneatha (also known as Bennie) is Lena's youngest child and only daughter, who plans to become a doctor. She has two gentleman callers in her life: George Murchison, the wealthy Negro whom she dislikes intensely, and Joseph Asagai, the Nigerian intellectual who sweeps her off her feet. She constantly presents herself as a modern, black woman, with new freedoms and rights, and plans to find her roots both in America and in Africa.

Lena Younger (Mama): Lena (Mama) is the matriarch of the Younger family, controlling everyone's emotions and actions, and calling the shots on the future. The check belongs to her, since it is her husband who passed away. She cares nothing for money and only about her beloved family and life. She adores plants and carries her window plant with her to the new house. Although she scolds her children, she wants nothing more than for them to get along and raise happy, healthy families. She migrated north to Chicago from the South during the harsh lynching period for Negroes and cannot understand the modern ways in which people are heading. Everyone in the family looks to her for advice and love, which she openly gives with all her heart.

Minor Characters

Joseph Asagai: Asagai is Beneatha's African boyfriend. He is from Nigeria and wants to take Bennie back with him to practice medicine in Africa. He is very intelligent and stays close to his roots, causing Bennie to fall for him.

George Murchison: George Murchison is Beneatha's wealthy gentleman caller. He is true Negro wealth and has an ego to back it up. Although the Younger family appears to want Bennie to marry George for his money, Bennie despises his character and wants to be with Asagai.

Karl Lindner: Mr. Lindner is the white representative from the Clybourne Welcoming Committee. He comes to the Younger household feigning respect, and attempts to appear accepting, while secretly wanting the Negro family out of his community. He offers the Younger family money in exchange for their absence from his neighborhood.

Bobo : Bobo is one of Walter Lee's acquaintances. He is one of the men in on the deal for the liquor store and informs Walter Lee that Willy Harris has disappeared with both his and Walter's money.

Willy Harris: Willy Harris makes no physical appearance in the play, yet is mentioned several times as a no-good scoundrel. He is one of the men with whom Walter plans to open a liquor store, but disappears with both Walter and Bobo's money leaving no trace.

Moving men : The moving men come into the Younger household at the conclusion of the play and move their possessions out of the living room.

 

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در چهارشنبه چهاردهم اردیبهشت 1390 و ساعت 14:13 |

 

Murray Bail

  

The text talks about a man called Joe and his way of living. He likes to stay in silence, living in a camp, alone. He was a rabbit hunter, who´s used to sell dead rabbits for a man called Treolar.

We can see that the silence is Joe´s "friend". The silence has more strength and is more important than a dialogue that Joe had with Treolar. Treolar had a truck that made noise and Joe hated every time that the truck came and broke his silence.

The text tries to prove that the simple things are more important than the "big things" (in the case, things that make noise). The text tells us to think of these common things, things that we don´t consider important. We mean, these "little things", sometimes tell us more than words can say.

The dialogue that Joe had with Treolar is a way to prove that the silence is made to be broken, but sometimes is better not to break the silence with words.

The "natural" things tell us more things than simple words. The sunset or the movement of the trees, for example. These things make us think and are a kind of silence. Joe prefered the nature than Treolar because he found in the silence of the nature, peace and "answers". And he didn´t find it with Treolar.

The rabbits are an elemment to prove the way Joe lives. The rabbits don´t make noise and live with the nature. These examples are used because they live in a big "society". It means that there are a lot of rabbits but they don´t make noise.

It is to prove the way we live in society: alone. We have a lot of people around us but we don´t communicate with these people.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در چهارشنبه سی و یکم فروردین 1390 و ساعت 14:9 |

What is a Healthy Lifestyle

Public awareness of personal health and fitness has grown tremendously over the last few decades. In generations past the idea of eating right and being physically fit was a luxury reserved for a privileged few. This concept has matured to embrace the idea that we all need to regularly engage in pursuit of our own wellbeing. It seems that every week there is a new diet or fitness craze that emerges promising to provide the missing element to help you trim down and shape up. With all the choices available, it’s no wonder that the majority of individuals that try to improve their condition, eventually drift back into old habits and fall short of their goals, feeling discouraged and even more confused about how to effectively begin living a healthy lifestyle.

Defining the elements that constitute a healthy lifestyle is often as challenging as living the model. Training for the body and conditioning for the mind serves to address the duality of our complex nature. To neglect one in favor of the other, only serves to make your approach one dimensional and reduces its effectiveness.  Most fitness professionals agree that there are several key factors that are necessary for a well rounded training routine. Each component adds greater depth to your overall approach to wellness. Here are several things to consider while developing your approach to healthy living.
    
A comprehensive model of healthy living should address physical and mental training, nutrition, and how to balance these with quality rest and recovery.  Resistance training enhances your capacity to perform activities requiring physical strength. This coupled with cardio-conditioning increases your endurance, or the ability to work longer periods of time without overtaxing. Combing strength and endurance with systems of exercise that increase flexibility, or the range of motion in a joint, aid in allowing for a greater sense of confidence and coordination as you move. Choosing an activity, that challenges your body and equally engages your mind, will serve to increase your powers of concentration and helps you to become calmer. Working with a Personal Trainer or other qualified fitness professionals can help you to get started in a smart and safe manner.

Maintaining a balanced and varied diet is essential for the promotion of health. Eating fresh foods with a minimum of processing is believed by many experts to provide a greater quality of nutrition. Altering your diet to take advantage of ‘what’s in season’ will give you a broader selection of foods to choose from as well.
    
According to a prominent neuro-immunologist and one of the nation’s leading authorities on stress reduction, the clinical definition of aging is: “The bodies declining ability for recovery.”  Hall further states that this decline is not necessarily linked to our chronology, but is likely the result of stress due to the unceasing demands that we place on ourselves. Sufficient rest when we feel tired or during times that are exceedingly stressful is essential.  Adequate recovery from work or injuries and extra rest when we feel illness coming on is our best weapon to aid in the healing process.
    
The best gauge of health and fitness is “how well you feel on a daily basis.” At the core of this level of wellness is a lifestyle built around balance and moderation. Take the time to take care of yourself. The results of your investment will prove to be well worth the effort.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در پنجشنبه دوم دی 1389 و ساعت 17:0 |

Technology Essay, English Composition Writing on Technology, Example Essay on Technology

Technology has become a part of our lives. There are more and more people having computers
in their homes, and more and more people own cell phones. I am not the exception.

In the past, people do many things manually, but now they use computers, cell phones and the
internet instead. People are becoming lazier. Some people even use computers to do all the
things that they want to do. The earlier generation of cell phones are black and big, but now they
have become smaller and more colorful. Some cell phone can be used to surf the internet, and
some of them have games. Others can be used to receive e-mails.

I have one cell phone, too. It's a Nokia 6108. I bought it from my friend. He has a newer cell phone which can take pictures. I like cell phones that can take pictures. If I have money, I'll buy one for myself.

Technology is not always good, because some of it is bad. People should think carefully before
they decide to buy anything.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در پنجشنبه دوم دی 1389 و ساعت 16:55 |
How to Learn English

Learning a language is mainly based upon self-struggle. Maybe the only thing to be done by the teachers on this subject is to advise a method. Because, in a sense, language cannot be taught but learned. So, it’s suitable that the students are shown ways to increase their capabilities and advised methods that give path to discoveries, instead of being obliged to memorize piles of information.

In language learning process, a target should be made clear at first. What can be expected from a student who cannot answer the question “Why are you learning this language?”. This point should not be forgotten: Language itself is used to reach some certain aims, to make some certain plans real in the real world. Therefore, one should have a target while s/he study a language.

Under the light of these facts, what must your target be? The decision seems to depend on you.

Success in learning a foreign language is closely related to the student’s knowledge of his/her native language (But, unfortunately, because of the variety of materials in ELT, English is taught in better ways than the native language). A student adds the information s/he knows about his/her native language to the language s/he’s learning at present. Sometimes just the opposite is also possible. A foreign language can make understanding of the native language easy. The student realizes that his/her native language is another language among the others and becomes much more aware about the activities s/he carries out about his/her native language. As Goethe says “One cannot know his/her native language if s/he does not know his/her native language.”

Repetitions and using the language are vital in language learning. It’s very easy to learn something if you really need it. Therefore, “motivation,” which has a main role in learning, should not be ignored.

A language seems to be a pile of infinite rules, but you do not have to know all of them. Once you learn the basic rules, you start to analyze and realize the other rules with ease. The important thing is to understand where these rules are applied, not to memorize them, anyway. Using a language sufficiently is more important than knowing a lot about it.

Learning a language requires talent as well as knowledge; and talent is gained only through practice. You may know how to drive a car, but you have to have much practice to be a good driver.

Practicing with simple examples is not a good idea. Everybody should try to use the language in complexity to gain the ability to think and express him/herself fast.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در پنجشنبه دوم دی 1389 و ساعت 16:45 |

  An Essay About Why We Learn English

Learning English is much more than a fad; it is really a must! Let's take a look around us: the latest information around the world is written in or translated into English. To keep up with the ever-changing world, we must be equipped with a good command of English. From a more practical point of view, armed English is one of the most important required subjects for the university and high school entrance exam. To do well on the exam, we must, again, study hard to score high in the subject.

Frankly, my English is not good. But I have been doing my best to improve my English in order to pass the college entrance examination .In my case, I force myself to memorize at least a few new words every day because a large vocabulary is essential in learning English well. Second, I review some grammar rules every week, which helps me make fewer mistakes in writing English. Third, I read short articles and then write an English composition every other day. I hope to get high marks in both reading and writing. Now my English is improving day by day, and I hope I can do well in the English test for the coming college examination.

English has always been my headache. Whenever I have an English class, I feel bored, sleepy and frustrated. All those meaningless drills, repetitions and are meaningless drills, repetitions and pattern practices confuse me and are more likely to lull me to sleep than to acquaint me with basic language skills. They always make me uneasy and uncomfortable. And with those repetitive, perplexing and monotonous noises, I cannot but feel as if left alone and helpless in an exotic land. My poor pronunciation and broken knowledge about grammar have become a great subject of joke in class. Whenever it is my turn to read a paragraph or two, the classroom is sure to ring with loud laughter, which makes me embarrassed. For all these reasons, it is not surprising that I hate English.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در پنجشنبه دوم دی 1389 و ساعت 16:41 |

Good luck superstitions and bad luck superstitions

June 21, 2008 – 1:19 am

Do you believe in superstitions?

Good luck superstitionsThousands of people believe in superstitions although a lot off people think of them as nonsense and not based on reason. Where does the word “superstition” come from? The word superstition comes from two Latin words: “Super’’ and “Stare”. Super means above and stare means to stand.

We know that the source of the superstitions is ignorance. Do you know anyone who does not have a superstition? Most of the people, more or less, believe in them. Even though they deny superstitions, they can not help believing in them. They are superstitious. Unfortunately, we have hundreds of superstitions. Superstitions are all around the world. They change from culture to culture and they have a big influence in our lives.

There are two types of superstition. Good luck superstitions and bad luck superstitions.

Some common superstitions around the world:

Good luck superstitions

- If your right hand itches, you will earn money.

- If you find a four-leaf clover, you will have good luck.

- If you see a horseshoe which was lost, you will have good luck.

- If you throw rice on a new bride and groom, they will have so many children.

- If you dream about a white cat, you will have good luck.

- If you see a black cat which walks towards you, it brings you good luck.

- If your right ear itches, someone is speaking well of you.

- You can hang up garlic in your house for good luck.

- If you put a mirror just across the door, you will have good luck.

- If you put the sugar into the cup first, before the tea, you will have good luck.

- If you step on your shadow, it brings you good luck.

- If you catch a falling leaf on the first day of autumn, you will have good luck all winter.

- If you blow out all the candles on your birthday cake in one blow, you will get whatever you want.

- If the first butterfly you see in the year is white, it brings you good luck all year.

- If a girl drinks salty water then goes to sleep, she will see her future husband in her dream.

Bad luck superstitions

- If you open an umbrella indoors, it brings you bad luck.

- If you sleep with your feet towards the door, a nightwalker will steal your soul.

- If you whistle at night, a nightwalker will come to your home.

- When a cat sneezes three times indoors, it will rain in 24 hours.

- If you dream about a dog, you will have a lot of enemies.

- If you break a mirror, it will bring you seven years of bad luck.

- If an owl hoots in your garden, it brings you bad luck.

- If you walk under a ladder, you will have bad luck.

- If you kill an albatross, it brings you bad luck.

- If you sleep on a table, you will have bad luck.

- If a dog howls at night, death is near.

- If you see a bird that comes towards you, you will have bad luck.

- If you drop a dishcloth, you will have bad luck.

- If you eat from the pot, it will rain at your wedding ceremony.

- If you start a trip on Friday, you will meet misfortune.

- If your left hand itches, you will lose money.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در سه شنبه بیست و هفتم مهر 1389 و ساعت 12:9 |

Superstitions have been a part of human life since times immemorial. Most of the superstitions have had their origin in ancient times, when man was at the mercy of Nature. Neither had he developed the scientific understanding to reason out mishaps, nor did he have modern technologies that would monitor forces of nature and help him recover from onslaught of diseases or natural calamities. The only option that he had was to regard such events with reverence. He spun stories and beliefs, which he believed would protect him from sufferings. These beliefs and customs became superstitions, that have been followed by man over generations. Although science has helped us refute a number of superstitions, some of them are still followed by people of all over the world.

What are Superstitions?

Superstitions are largely considered as irrational beliefs associated with the existence of certain mysterious forces, specially evil spirits, that were supposed to bring bad luck to one unless certain actions were taken to prevent the bad effects. These actions could include modifying an individual's behavior, avoiding certain actions or places or wearing amulets or lucky charms.

Superstitions can be personal or cultural. Personal superstitions are bred from experiences that an individual has during his lifetime. However, cultural superstitions are those that one is supposed to believe in, because they have been followed over generations, by people.

Some Common Bad Luck Superstitions and their Origin

Friday the 13th
There are many different theories about how the number 13 came to be considered an unlucky number. According to Valhalla, an ancient religion, during a feast the home of
gods had 12 guests. The God of Deceit was not invited. However, he turned up at the gathering as the thirteenth guest. According to Christianity, The Last Supper had 13 guests, Judas the betrayer being the thirteenth guest. Also since Jesus Christ died on a Friday, Friday the 13th is considered very unlucky, by the Christians.

Walking under a Ladder
Common sense would justify, not walking under a leaning ladder in order to avoid getting hurt, in case the ladder slipped and fell on you. However, according to Christian belief, a leaning ladder formed a triangle with the wall and the ground, that was supposed to represent the Holy Trinity. Walking under such a ladder, was equivalent to violating the Holy Trinity and was supposed to bring bad luck.

Breaking a Mirror
According to Roman culture, one's reflection in the mirror was believed to represent one's soul. Hence breaking the mirror or looking into a broken mirror was supposed to bring seven years of bad luck. The bad luck would be over after seven years as the soul was believed to renew itself every seven years.

Black Cats
Bast was a highly revered Cat goddess, in
ancient Egypt. In their bid to wipe out every religion other than Christianity, Christian priests popularized the black cat as a symbol of bad luck. Women who cared for the animals were termed as witches. This superstition was one of the most prevalent superstitions of the Elizabethan Era.

Spilling Salt
It is believed that spilling salt brings bad luck. To undo the bad effects of spilled salt one is advised to throw some salt over the shoulder to prevent bad spirits from following him. The origin of this superstition lies in the fact that salt used to be a very expensive commodity in olden times and was also used to make medicines. Hence, this superstition arose to check people from wasting salt.

Opening of Umbrellas Indoor
Opening umbrellas indoor, was supposed to bring bad luck as in olden times the umbrella was supposed to be used only as a protection against
the sun. Hence, opening it indoors was considered as a mark of disrespect to the sun god.

Though most of the superstitions are believed to have originated from the fear of the unknown, few people even find logic behind some of them. For example, while not walking under a ladder can be interpreted as a measure to avoid accident due to a leaning ladder falling on an individual, the superstition of not hanging hats from the bedpost has been justified as a measure to check the spread of
head lice. Whatever the reason behind its origin, superstitions have been a part of all cultures and religions of the world, since ancient times to the modern day.

+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در سه شنبه بیست و هفتم مهر 1389 و ساعت 12:4 |

Act 2, Scene 1


SCENE I. A room in POLONIUS' house.

    Enter POLONIUS and REYNALDO

LORD POLONIUS

    Give him this money and these notes, Reynaldo.

REYNALDO

    I will, my lord.

LORD POLONIUS

    You shall do marvellous wisely, good Reynaldo,
    Before you visit him, to make inquire
    Of his behavior.

REYNALDO

    My lord, I did intend it.

LORD POLONIUS

    Marry, well said; very well said. Look you, sir,
    Inquire me first what Danskers are in Paris;
    And how, and who, what means, and where they keep,
    What company, at what expense; and finding
    By this encompassment and drift of question
    That they do know my son, come you more nearer
    Than your particular demands will touch it:
    Take you, as 'twere, some distant knowledge of him;
    As thus, 'I know his father and his friends,
    And in part him: ' do you mark this, Reynaldo?

REYNALDO

    Ay, very well, my lord.

LORD POLONIUS

    'And in part him; but' you may say 'not well:
    But, if't be he I mean, he's very wild;
    Addicted so and so:' and there put on him
    What forgeries you please; marry, none so rank
    As may dishonour him; take heed of that;
    But, sir, such wanton, wild and usual slips
    As are companions noted and most known
    To youth and liberty.

REYNALDO

    As gaming, my lord.

LORD POLONIUS

    Ay, or drinking, fencing, swearing, quarrelling,
    Drabbing: you may go so far.

REYNALDO

    My lord, that would dishonour him.

LORD POLONIUS

    'Faith, no; as you may season it in the charge
    You must not put another scandal on him,
    That he is open to incontinency;
    That's not my meaning: but breathe his faults so quaintly
    That they may seem the taints of liberty,
    The flash and outbreak of a fiery mind,
    A savageness in unreclaimed blood,
    Of general assault.

REYNALDO

    But, my good lord,--

LORD POLONIUS

    Wherefore should you do this?

REYNALDO

    Ay, my lord,
    I would know that.

LORD POLONIUS

    Marry, sir, here's my drift;
    And I believe, it is a fetch of wit:
    You laying these slight sullies on my son,
    As 'twere a thing a little soil'd i' the working, Mark you,
    Your party in converse, him you would sound,
    Having ever seen in the prenominate crimes
    The youth you breathe of guilty, be assured
    He closes with you in this consequence;
    'Good sir,' or so, or 'friend,' or 'gentleman,'
    According to the phrase or the addition
    Of man and country.

REYNALDO

    Very good, my lord.

LORD POLONIUS

    And then, sir, does he this--he does--what was I
    about to say? By the mass, I was about to say
    something: where did I leave?

REYNALDO

    At 'closes in the consequence,' at 'friend or so,'
    and 'gentleman.'

LORD POLONIUS

    At 'closes in the consequence,' ay, marry;
    He closes thus: 'I know the gentleman;
    I saw him yesterday, or t' other day,
    Or then, or then; with such, or such; and, as you say,
    There was a' gaming; there o'ertook in's rouse;
    There falling out at tennis:' or perchance,
    'I saw him enter such a house of sale,'
    Videlicet, a brothel, or so forth.
    See you now;
    Your bait of falsehood takes this carp of truth:
    And thus do we of wisdom and of reach,
    With windlasses and with assays of bias,
    By indirections find directions out:
    So by my former lecture and advice,
    Shall you my son. You have me, have you not?

REYNALDO

    My lord, I have.

LORD POLONIUS

    God be wi' you; fare you well.

REYNALDO

    Good my lord!

LORD POLONIUS

    Observe his inclination in yourself.

REYNALDO

    I shall, my lord.

LORD POLONIUS

    And let him ply his music.

REYNALDO

    Well, my lord.

LORD POLONIUS

    Farewell!

    Exit REYNALDO

    Enter OPHELIA
    How now, Ophelia! what's the matter?

OPHELIA

    O, my lord, my lord, I have been so affrighted!

LORD POLONIUS

    With what, i' the name of God?

OPHELIA

    My lord, as I was sewing in my closet,
    Lord Hamlet, with his doublet all unbraced;
    No hat upon his head; his stockings foul'd,
    Ungarter'd, and down-gyved to his ancle;
    Pale as his shirt; his knees knocking each other;
    And with a look so piteous in purport
    As if he had been loosed out of hell
    To speak of horrors,--he comes before me.

LORD POLONIUS

    Mad for thy love?

OPHELIA

    My lord, I do not know;
    But truly, I do fear it.

LORD POLONIUS

    What said he?

OPHELIA

    He took me by the wrist and held me hard;
    Then goes he to the length of all his arm;
    And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow,
    He falls to such perusal of my face
    As he would draw it. Long stay'd he so;
    At last, a little shaking of mine arm
    And thrice his head thus waving up and down,
    He raised a sigh so piteous and profound
    As it did seem to shatter all his bulk
    And end his being: that done, he lets me go:
    And, with his head over his shoulder turn'd,
    He seem'd to find his way without his eyes;
    For out o' doors he went without their helps,
    And, to the last, bended their light on me.

LORD POLONIUS

    Come, go with me: I will go seek the king.
    This is the very ecstasy of love,
    Whose violent property fordoes itself
    And leads the will to desperate undertakings
    As oft as any passion under heaven
    That does afflict our natures. I am sorry.
    What, have you given him any hard words of late?

OPHELIA

    No, my good lord, but, as you did command,
    I did repel his fetters and denied
    His access to me.

LORD POLONIUS

    That hath made him mad.
    I am sorry that with better heed and judgment
    I had not quoted him: I fear'd he did but trifle,
    And meant to wreck thee; but, beshrew my jealousy!
    By heaven, it is as proper to our age
    To cast beyond ourselves in our opinions
    As it is common for the younger sort
    To lack discretion. Come, go we to the king:
    This must be known; which, being kept close, might
    move
    More grief to hide than hate to utter love.
+ نوشته شده توسط f.sh در سه شنبه پانزدهم تیر 1389 و ساعت 11:22 |